This, That, These, Those


WH QUESTIONS (present tense)

WH Questions with “TO BE”

WH Questions with Present Simple

These are questions that we ask to find out about the subject. The question word comes before the verb without the use of the auxiliary verb. You just omit the subject and put the question word without making any change in the sentence order.

For example:

Who works at a university?” (Not who does work at a university? This is wrong!!)


works at a university.

Who is a teacher at a university?”

Sheis a teacher at a university.

“What is expensive?”

The book is expensive.

Which book tells an intersting story?”

The expensive book tells an interesting story.


Object questions ask about the object of a sentence. The word order of the question must be changed. Use Who or Whom for people and What for objects.

For example:

* John helps Alice.

Who helps Alice? John helps Alice. (subject question)

Who(m) does John help? John helps Alice. (object question)

* John is with Alice.

Who is with Alice? John is with Alice. (subject question)

Who is John with? John is with Alice. (object question)

* The book gives a good example.

What does the book give? The book gives a good example.


An adjective clause is used to describe a noun. A relative pronoun is usually used to introduce an adjective clause:

Who: used for humans in subject position:
Hans, who is an architect, lives in Berlin.
Whom: used for humans in object position:
Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.
Which: used for things and animals in subject or object position:
Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere.
That: used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position (but see below): Marike is decorating a house that Hans designed.
Whose: used for humans, animalsi or objects to give information about their possessions.
The girl whose dress is red is my best friend.
Where: used for places
The hotel where we stayed last summer was very beautiful.
When: used for time
My baby was born in the year when I moved to Italy.
give extra information about the noun, but they are not essential, they give extra information:
Ataturk , who was the greatest leader of all times , created a modern country from the ashes of Ottoman Empire.
(We know who Ataturk is, and the clause used here gives extra information about him.)
The desk in the corner , which is covered in books , is mine.
(We don’t need this information in order to understand the sentence. “The desk in the corner is mine” is a good sentence on its own — we still know which desk is referred to.)
Be careful!!! : non-defining clauses are usually separated by commas.
“that” is not usually used in this kind of context.
give essential(necessary) information about the noun:
The package that arrived this morning is on the desk.
(We need this information in order to understand the sentence. Without the relative clause, we don’t know which package is being referred to.
Be careful!!!that” is often used in defining relative clauses, and they are not separated by commas.


I should have gone to the funeral. (You didn’t go and now you regret)
Lex might have taken Karen to the airport. (He may be on the way now)
Lex could have taken Karen to the airport. (Most likely he didn’t)
His children must have been sick. (That’s why they were not in the class yesterday.)



Past Perfect
The past perfect is used to refer to an event or situation which took place before another past event.

Tom had interviewed five times before he got his first job.
She had already eaten by the time they arrived.

Past Perfect Continuous:
The past perfect continuous is used to express how long something had been going on before something important happened in the past.

Jane had been studying for four hours when he came home.
Jack had been driving four over six hours when he finally pulled over to have lunch.

Note: You cannot use non-action verbs in past perfect progressive tense.





1- Use am/is/are supposed to when something is planned, arranged, expected or said in the present or future. It can also be used when something is not allowed.

Eg: “I’m going to buy his book. It’s suposed to be very good.”
” I’m supposed to give a conference in Berlin tomorrow.”
Are you supposed to finish the project today?” Yes I am.
” He is not supposed to be here now”
“You are not supposed to speak Turkish in an English class.
2- Use was /were supposed to when you are expected to do something in the past but could not do it :

Eg: “The exam was supposed to start at 10.00, but the teacher was late.”
“They were supposed to call before they go, but they didn’t.


Watch a video on Youtube about be supposed to


1- Use ‘prefer’ to talk generally about likes, dislikes, what we want.

Eg: “I prefer horror films in general.”
“He prefers reading books.”
” They prefer to spend their holiday abroad.”

2- The expressions ‘would prefer’ and ‘would rather’, to be a little more specific or for on the spot decisions.

Eg: “I would prefer to see him in person.”
“I’d prefer living in a city”

Eg: “I would rather go home now.”

3- While making comparison prefer, would prefer – go with ‘to’

Eg: “I prefer İzmir to Ankara.”
“I prefer living in a city to living in the country.”
“I would (I’d) prefer being alone to being with the wrong person”.

4- While making comparisons, would rather – goes with ‘than

Eg: “I’d rather talk to him in person than call him on the phone.”

5- To ask about general likes and dislikes, use “present simple tense”.

Eg: Do you prefer horror films?

Do you prefer traveling alone?
Do you prefer to visit historical places?
6- To ask about specific choices or the things people want at that time use “would”
Eg: “Would you prefer to see a movie or go to a club?”
“Would you rather go shopping with me?”
““Would you rather stay at a hotel?”



1- Infinitives are the “to” form of the verb.
The infinitive form of “learn” is “to learn.” You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.

· To learn is important.
· The most important thing is to learn.
· He wants to learn.

2- Infinitives can be made negative by adding “not.”

· I decided not to go.
· The most important thing is not to give up.

3- Some verbs are followed by infinitives

4- Some verbs are followed by a noun +infinitive.
In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional.
· The police ordered the man to stop. (noun is required)
· She asked to leave. (noun is optional)
· She asked him to leave. (noun is optional)

1-A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding “-ing

Reading helps you learn English.

Her favorite hobby is reading.

I enjoy reading.
(S) (V) (O)

2-Gerunds can be made negative by adding “not.”

The best thing for your health is not smoking.
He prefers not speaking.

3-In the subject position mostly gerunds are used.
Learning is important.
Dancing is enjoyable.

4- Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.

They enjoyed working on the boat.

5- There are many “go + gerund” expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities

I go swimming every weekend.

6- Gerunds are used after prepositions.

He is thinking about studying abroad.
Sandy is scared of flying.
They admitted to committing the crime.
Adjective+preposition+ Gerund

Noun +preposition+Gerund

Verb +Preposition + Gerund
We concentrated on doing well.

7- Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John’s

I enjoyed their singing.
She understood his saying no to the offer.
Sam resented Debbie’s coming late to the dinner.
We discussed Mary’s behaving so rude.

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.