WH Questions with Present Simple
“Who works at a university?” (Not who does work at a university? This is wrong!!)
works at a university.
“Who is a teacher at a university?”
Sheis a teacher at a university.
“What is expensive?”
The book is expensive.
“Which book tells an intersting story?”
The expensive book tells an interesting story.
Object questions ask about the object of a sentence. The word order of the question must be changed. Use Who or Whom for people and What for objects.
* John helps Alice.
Who helps Alice? John helps Alice. (subject question)
Who(m) does John help? John helps Alice. (object question)
* John is with Alice.
Who is with Alice? John is with Alice. (subject question)
Who is John with? John is with Alice. (object question)
* The book gives a good example.
What does the book give? The book gives a good example.
An adjective clause is used to describe a noun. A relative pronoun is usually used to introduce an adjective clause:
Hans, who is an architect, lives in Berlin.
Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.
Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere.
I should have gone to the funeral. (You didn’t go and now you regret)
Lex might have taken Karen to the airport. (He may be on the way now)
Lex could have taken Karen to the airport. (Most likely he didn’t)
His children must have been sick. (That’s why they were not in the class yesterday.)
Tom had interviewed five times before he got his first job.
She had already eaten by the time they arrived.
Past Perfect Continuous:
The past perfect continuous is used to express how long something had been going on before something important happened in the past.
Jane had been studying for four hours when he came home.
Jack had been driving four over six hours when he finally pulled over to have lunch.
1- Use am/is/are supposed to when something is planned, arranged, expected or said in the present or future. It can also be used when something is not allowed.
Eg: “I’m going to buy his book. It’s suposed to be very good.”
” I’m supposed to give a conference in Berlin tomorrow.”
” Are you supposed to finish the project today?” Yes I am.
” He is not supposed to be here now”
“You are not supposed to speak Turkish in an English class.
2- Use was /were supposed to when you are expected to do something in the past but could not do it :
1- Use ‘prefer’ to talk generally about likes, dislikes, what we want.
Eg: “I prefer horror films in general.”
“He prefers reading books.”
” They prefer to spend their holiday abroad.”
2- The expressions ‘would prefer’ and ‘would rather’, to be a little more specific or for on the spot decisions.
3- While making comparison prefer, would prefer – go with ‘to’
5- To ask about general likes and dislikes, use “present simple tense”.
Eg: Do you prefer horror films?
INFINITIVES (TO + VERB )
1- Infinitives are the “to” form of the verb.
The infinitive form of “learn” is “to learn.” You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
· To learn is important.
· The most important thing is to learn.
· He wants to learn.
2- Infinitives can be made negative by adding “not.”
· I decided not to go.
· The most important thing is not to give up.
3- Some verbs are followed by infinitives
4- Some verbs are followed by a noun +infinitive.
In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional.
· The police ordered the man to stop. (noun is required)
· She asked to leave. (noun is optional)
· She asked him to leave. (noun is optional)
Reading helps you learn English.
(SUB) (VERB) (OBJECT)
Her favorite hobby is reading.
(SUBJECT) (Verb) (COMPLEMENT)
I enjoy reading.
(S) (V) (O)
The best thing for your health is not smoking.
He prefers not speaking.
3-In the subject position mostly gerunds are used.
Learning is important.
Dancing is enjoyable.
4- Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.
5- There are many “go + gerund” expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities
6- Gerunds are used after prepositions.
Sandy is scared of flying.
They admitted to committing the crime.
7- Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John’s
I enjoyed their singing.
She understood his saying no to the offer.
Sam resented Debbie’s coming late to the dinner.
We discussed Mary’s behaving so rude.
GERUND OR INFINITIVE ?
Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.