1- Infinitives are the “to” form of the verb.
The infinitive form of “learn” is “to learn.” You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.

· To learn is important.
· The most important thing is to learn.
· He wants to learn.

2- Infinitives can be made negative by adding “not.”

· I decided not to go.
· The most important thing is not to give up.

3- Some verbs are followed by infinitives

4- Some verbs are followed by a noun +infinitive.
In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional.
· The police ordered the man to stop. (noun is required)
· She asked to leave. (noun is optional)
· She asked him to leave. (noun is optional)

1-A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding “-ing

Reading helps you learn English.

Her favorite hobby is reading.

I enjoy reading.
(S) (V) (O)

2-Gerunds can be made negative by adding “not.”

The best thing for your health is not smoking.
He prefers not speaking.

3-In the subject position mostly gerunds are used.
Learning is important.
Dancing is enjoyable.

4- Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.

They enjoyed working on the boat.

5- There are many “go + gerund” expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities

I go swimming every weekend.

6- Gerunds are used after prepositions.

He is thinking about studying abroad.
Sandy is scared of flying.
They admitted to committing the crime.
Adjective+preposition+ Gerund

Noun +preposition+Gerund

Verb +Preposition + Gerund
We concentrated on doing well.

7- Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John’s

I enjoyed their singing.
She understood his saying no to the offer.
Sam resented Debbie’s coming late to the dinner.
We discussed Mary’s behaving so rude.

Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.




1. One syllable adjectives: cheap
Comparative: add –er (cheaper) Superlative: add –est (the cheapest)

2. One syllable adjectives ending in ‘e’: nice
Comparative: add –r (nicer) Superlative: add –st (the nicest)

3. One syllable adjectives ending in consonant – vowel – consonant: hot
Comparative: add consonant + er (hotter)
Superlative: add consonant + est (the hottest)

4. Two syllable adjectives ending in ‘y’: happy
Comparative: replace y with –ier (happier) Superlative: replace y with –iest (the happiest)

5. Two or more syllable adjectives: beautiful
Comparative: add more / less (more / less beautiful)
Superlative: add the most / the least (the most / least beautiful)

6. Irregular adjectivesgood – better – the best
bad – worse – the worst
far – further – the furthest

Functions and examples

1. We use comparatives to compare two things.John is thinner than Bob.
It’s more expensive to travel by train than by bus.
My house is smaller than my friend’s house.

2. We use superlatives to compare one thing with the rest of the group it belongs to.John is the tallest in the class.
He’s the best football player in the team.
This is the most expensive hotel I’ve ever stayed in.

3- We can repeat comparatives to say that something is changing.
These exams are getting worse and worse every year.
She gets more and more beautiful every time I see her.


1- We use as + adjective + as or as + adverb+ as to say that two things are similar in some way.
He’s as tall as me. (as+adj+as)
Jim’s car is as fast as mine.

He runs as fast as me. (as+adv+as)
She sings as well as her sister.
The little boy speaks English as fluently as his brother.

2- We use not to say that two things are different in some way.He’s not as tall as me. I am taller than him.
Jim’s car is not as fast as mine. My car is faster.
She does not sing as well as her sister. Her sister sings better.
The little boy cannot speak English as fluently as his brother. His brother speaks English more fluently.